Sunday, April 23, 2017

Fragonia™ update:

Was emailing back and forth with John Day this past week, regarding some other oils,and he shared an update on the Fragonia replanting.

Above is a picture of some of the burnt out acreage.

John writes: "We seem to be endlessly busy getting things together again after the fire.
We have 80,000 little seedlings (picture attached) which will be ready to plant out in about Sept/Oct, and need to get the old burnt out plantation(picture attached)cleaned up and ready for planting by then.

We've also bought the burnt out pine plantation next door, so we have"future proofed" our business going forward...I'm thinking more about the next generation, not us, and Lisa is super keen to carry the business forward.

And for your info we are also putting in a trial planting of Manuka oil(Lept. Scaparium), along with a substantial planting of Manuka for honey production.

So plenty to do.    cheers
I can not conceive of 80,000 seedlings, much less of planting them all.
So many of us love Fragonia™.  I think we have no idea of the hard physical labor involved in bringing it, or the other oils we love, to us.

Thank you for sharing this, John. 
 (And I'm wondering about the new Manuka, how it will compare with our treasured East Cape Manuka.  It will be interesting to see GC's of that, when its ready.)

Monday, April 10, 2017

Post Partum Problems, part 1.

The first in a series of guest blogs by Sue Pace. Sue is a Registered Nurse, Paramedic, Certified and Registered Aromatherapist, and doula-in-training. She holds certifications in Aromatherapy from Aromahead Institute, RJ Buckle's Certified Clinical Aromatherapy Practitioner program for healthcare professionals, and recently received her Advanced Diploma in Aromatic Medicine studies with Australian expert Mark Webb. She is also the Connecticut representative to the Alliance of International Aromatherapists and a member of their Clinical Committee.

In the aftermath of a baby’s birth, new mothers contend not only with a vivid swirl of emotions, but also with some distressing physical issues. After the passage of the baby through the birth canal, perineal tissue (including the external vulva and tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus) is often swollen, bruised, or even lacerated. The resulting discomfort makes walking or sitting difficult for days or weeks postpartum. As well, pain can diminish the mother’s enjoyment of her newborn baby and interfere in family dynamics (Marshall and Raynor, 2014).

The use of ice or cooling pads has long been recommended to help decrease discomfort to the perineal area after childbirth. “Padsicles”, as they are popularly known, are cooling gel, cloth, or feminine hygiene maxi-pads which are treated with soothing substances and then placed in the freezer. Applied to the perineum several times daily in the immediate postnatal period, they can be an effective tool in decreasing symptoms of pain, swelling, and bruising (Steen and Marchant, 2007).

In addition to the use of cooling pads for relief, herbalists and aromatherapists sometimes suggest the addition of herbs and/or essential oils in perineal applications to reduce pain, swelling, and to speed healing. Herbalist/aromatherapist Demetria Clark recommends herbal sitz baths, compresses, perineal rinses, or poultices using herbs or extracts such as aloe vera, witch hazel, calendula and plantain, among others (Clark, 2005a and b).  

Several clinical studies have been conducted which were designed to examine the effects of lavender essential oil on postpartum perineal tissue concerns. Symptoms such as pain, swelling, or redness were found to be less prevalent in lavender treatment groups than in the control groups (Sheikhan et al 2012, Vakilian et al 2011).

Professional aromatherapists have been asked “Is it safe to use essential oils on such delicate tissue?” or “I heard that essential oils shouldn’t be used on broken skin or stitches”. As with much in the aromatherapy profession, there are no one-size-fits-all answers to these questions.  Care certainly must be taken to avoid injuring delicate mucous membranes. Researchers associated with one of the above referenced studies used a 1.5% dilution of lavender essential oil in olive oil. This lavender dilution was found to significantly lessen tissue redness over a more traditionally used solution of Betadine, a common hospital antiseptic (Vakilian et al, 2011).

When asked about use of oils on stitches/suture lines, many aromatherapists advise waiting until sutures have been removed and the skin is healed over. However, in the case of a new mother who has significant pain or tissue swelling from an episiotomy, the benefits of using properly diluted essential oils like lavender can be helpful indeed. Veteran British aromatherapists Shirley and Len Price (2012) recommend that essential oils should be “diluted in a suitable base or used on a dressing pad rather than straight on the wound”.  Alternatively, if one can assure that the product is very fresh and has been properly stored, a hydrosol spray can help soothe inflamed tissues. Lavender or witch hazel hydrosols come immediately to mind due to their anti-inflammatory, calming, and analgesic effects (Kerkhoff-Knapp Hayes, 2015).

There are any number of “mommy blogger” sites which offer DIY “padsicle” recipes. Such products are relatively inexpensive, disposable, and easy to make. If one keeps in mind safe dilutions and careful selection of appropriate oils or hydrosols, addition of these substances to a cooling pad may offer significant relief for one of the least pleasurable parts of new motherhood.

Soothing Hydrosol Padsicle
Choose from any (or a mix) of these hydrosols to spritz onto the surface of the pad that will make contact with tissue.  Don’t saturate the pad, as you don’t want to diminish its capability to absorb fluids. After spritzing, wrap the pad in plastic wrap or place in a container in the freezer. Remove the frozen pad from the container/wrap when needed and tuck into underwear for soothing, cooling relief. As mentioned previously, please be certain that the hydrosols you choose are very fresh and have been properly stored in a cool, dark place (a refrigerator is best).

  • German chamomile hydrosol
  • Helichrysum hydrosol
  • Witch hazel hydrosol
  • Lavender hydrosol   
Lavender Relief
Make a 1% dilution of lavender essential oil in 1 oz (30 ml) of Calophyllum inophyllum (tamanu) oil. (Any carrier oil would be acceptable, but tamanu has wonderful healing properties of its own). Spread a thin layer of the mixture on the surface of a clean maxi-pad; wrap in plastic or place in a container in the freezer. Remove frozen pad from the container/wrap when needed and tuck into underwear for soothing, cooling relief.

Please note that all the listed hydrosols are available online at Nature's Gift.

Clark D. Herbs for Postpartum Perineum Care: Part One. Midwifery Today, 2005.

Clark D. Herbs for Postpartum Perineum Care: Part Two. Midwifery Today, 2005.

Dale A and Cornwell S. The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1994;19(1):89–96.

Kerkhoff-Knapp Hayes M. Complementary Nursing in End of Life Care.  Kicozo (Netherlands), 2015.

Marshall J and Raynor M. Myles’ Textbook for Midwives, 16th edition. Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier), 2014.
Price S and Price L, eds. Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier), 2012.

Sheikhan F, Jahdi F, Khoei EM et al. Episiotomy pain relief: use of Lavender oil essence in primiparous Iranian women. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2012;18(1):66–70.

Steen M and Marchant P.  Ice packs and cooling gel pads versus no localised treatment for relief of perineal pain: a randomised controlled trial. Evid Based Midwifery 2007; 5(1):16-22.

Vakilian K, Attarha M, Bekhradi R et al. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2011;17(1):50–53.

Monday, March 27, 2017

New Treasures - Frankincense Infusions

Sometimes folks send us gifts.  Mostly clients who have been clients for years, have become friends, and are sharing samples of goodies they have made with our oils. Sometimes people who would like us to carry their products. (And we say a very polite no thank you because we don't offer other people's blends and products.)  And sometimes we get goodies from people we really don't know well at all.

Sacra Resin
This happened awhile ago. A young man I had encountered on FB asked if I would be interested in some Frankincense infusions of various types of Frankincense resin.  Of course I would.  I have read about infusing, decided it was FAR too much work for me, and continue to use my wee bit of Sacra resin in water upon occasion.  I had not encountered the infusion.

He wrote the following, and how could I refuse? "The resin gets powdered and double boiled into a carrier oil, the oleo part and the essential oils end up into the carrier oil (with a lovely scent), with most of the boswellic acid and incensole. Everybody loves the essential oil of Frankincense, and I've seen the boswellic acid in powder form, but nobody really talks about the infused oil, which I think is extremely powerful. I'm not going to talk about boswellic acid , cancer, etc...what I find even more intriguing is the fact that this infused oil is extremely calming (probably incensole, incensole acetate) , extremely grounding ...I'm a person very in tune with my body , and I absolutely love this infused oil ...and so does my girlfriend.

Here's a short story: my girlfriend uses raw coconut oil as body moisturizer ... in the beginning when I start making the oil , because she also loves the fragrance of it (I was infusing Serrata resin into raw coconut oil) , she decided to use the infused oil instead of her coconut oil...after she applies it on large areas of the body (right after a shower when the skin is so absorbent) , she comes to me and she says "I'm stoned "...after she told me what she did, we were both laughing, we didn't know how powerful the oil is, I asked her to describe how she feels , and her description was that was very similar to how she would feel, back in the high school days, when she smoked marijuana, very very relaxed. Basically she overdosed on Frankincense...I also make the oil strong, 1:3 resin to oil.
In my opinion , used in the right concentration ,this oil could be very useful for any person with anxiety, high stress , agitated , high strung . ..could probably be used as an enhanced carrier oil for any relaxing /calming mix next to the appropriate essential oils .
For me personally, I have found that has a bunch of other positive effects, that I will not talk here, will leave it for some other time, if that would be any. I like it in a facial moisturizer , I also use it for the boswellic acid in a post workout muscle/ligaments massage oil.
When I'm talking about "calm" , it's not a sedative calm it's a very grounding , clean calm . I personally start using it before playing intense basketball , as I feel it improves proprioception , body awareness. I'm gonna stop right here, I apologize if I wasted much of your time with this email , but I have felt that I should share all this information with somebody with more clout. If you find any of this intriguing , I'm willing to spend my money and time to make some of this infused oils and send it to you."              

Now... if someone emailed you that, could you turn it down? of course not!          

A few days later comes a box with all sorts of goodies.  Now, some were infused in Coconut oil, solid at room temperature. Interesting, but, not something that excited us. Some were infused in Virgin Coconut Oil, and although I am sure they contained the resin, all we could smell was the yummy coconut.  Interesting, but not very.

OH.. a wee bottle of Sacra infused in Fractionated Coconut Oil.  OH..  I want, I want I want! Christi (our true Frankincense lover) just glowed.  Jim smiled when we had him test it. (We KNOW something is right on when Jim smiles!)  Oh YES.

Serrata Resin
Now. we wanted more.  But even more than that, we wanted YOU to have more.  (When asked what we do, my favorite answer is, "we find beautiful aromatics and share them online.:)

So, after a LOT of discussion,  our young friend's investing in a more of Resin, we have two beautiful aromatics to share with you.

What is involved in creating this beauty?    First you import the resin.  then, you GRIND the resin. Very, very fine. Think Sand.  Golden sand (Serrata) or white sand (Sacra). Perhaps corn meal texture?  When producing a little bit of infusion for his own use, my friend could use a dedicated coffee grinder.  For a LOT of Resin? He invested in some tools. (No, I don't know what, some of it is his secret.)   Grind the resin.  (I don't have pictures of the ground resin. We'll add them next time.)

Infuse in warmed oil.  Let stand, in a double boiler arrangement.  Until you have decided it's stood long enough.Then let stand some more.
Serrata being infused, The swirl is particles of bark floating to the surface.

Sacra turns the oil milky white initially.
Filter, first through a 20 micron filter, then, again, through a 10 micron filter. Slowly. Very slowly.  (My friend says there is "sludge" left. His girlfriend uses the sludge as a scrub.  He makes a foot soak out of it.  Next he will measure the sludge.  And send me some of it!) 

A lot is lost. Not everything dissolves.  This time he did not take precise measurements after straining. We know how much went in. We do not know how much was lost to the "sludge."  Next time.  (I am saying next time because I believe that you will love this infusion as much as we do!  We want you to love it so we can commission more. And next time we will be much more scientific.)

After filtering?
Sacra, filtered.

Serrata, filtered
Remember, these started with colorless, odorless Fractionated Coconut Oil as the base oil.

 95 ounces of Fractionated Coconut oil.  38 ounces of Serrata Resin.     Or 115 ounces of Frac and 46 ounces of Sacra Resin.

Packaged to ship to us: 
Shipping back. ARRIVAL

Sacra, Measured
Serrata, Measured
Upon arrival Jim measured them in.  3120 and 2500 mls, respectively, of sheer bliss

As you can see from the photos above, there is a LOT of loss. (He shipped it back in the containers we shipped his Fractionated Coconut in.  We are rebottling in glass. We do NOT know the content of essential oil in this infusion, but my nose says that it is very strong.  Like our Blue Lotus infusion it will be sold in glass bottles.  I would not risk it, even in Pet plastic. I wanted to use an eyedropper to cap the bottles, but I am afraid the aromatics may react with the rubber bulb, so an EO bottle with an orifice reducer it shall be.

Also, based on our experience with the small samples our friend sent us earlier, that started this whole thing?  We believe that the microscopic particles of resin NOT filtered out will continue to dissolve. We believe that this will grow stronger as it ages.   We can't prove that, but the older infusion is aromatically more powerful than the fresh one.   Contrary to his statement above, my friend used a 2.5:1 ratio this time. More resin, less carrier,  sheer bliss!

This is the Frankincense spoken of in holy scriptures, the Frankincense of the Bible. Not the distilled essential oil, that I love, but the infused oil.

We are hoping that we will go through this whole "production" very quickly. My friend has invested in more resin, based on my enthusiasm.

We have asked our favorite analyst if it is possible to analyze these oils to find the "nonvolatile" components, the Incensole Acetate, found in the CO2 extract, but not the Essential oil, and the Boswellic Acid, so often cited in research studies, but not found in either Essential Oil or CO2.  It is, however, extracted in an oil infusion. It's possible, but extremely costly.  Perhaps next time?

The infused Sacra is, to my understanding, high in ß-caryophyllene. It also contains Incensole acetate and Boswellic acid, although at, I understand, a lower level than the Indian Serrata.  It is lovely, and smells like the soul of Frankicense sacra. Unmistakeably sacra, and wonderful.

The infused Serrata, on the other hand, is much higher in Boswellic Acid,  and contains little or no Incensole acetate.

Aromatically... if you love our Frankincense Sacra essential oil when we have it in stock, you are going to fall in love with this infusion.   It smells like the best Frankincense Essential Oil you have ever imagined.     The Serrata is softer, and aromatically much more appealing than the essential oil from the same resin.  (The Serrata is our artisan's favorite, he describes it as"lacking any citrusy, floral notes ...more black pepper/cypress notes in it, and some "animalic"notes too.)

It is a perfume strength oil, my friends, a little goes a long long way.  I am using it full strength to dab on some "skin things" that I would like to have gone. Results to come.  If you want to use it as an all over body oil, PLEASE dilute it way down.   

Use it as a base for perfume, it lasts wonderfully well on the skin.  Touch a drop to your third eye when meditating.    Rub some into a sore muscle.  Add a bit to your favorite skincare serum.  Thicken some with beeswax for a healing balm.  (Not a lip balm, it does not taste good!)

Enjoy.  I hope you will be as intrigued by this story, and fall in love with these infusions just like we did!

You may read more about, and order, this lovely Serrata here. 

More information on the Sacra infusion that started this journey is here.

Friday, March 24, 2017

Emotional Trauma

Serenidipity. Sometimes there is a need, and we have JUST the perfect thing.  Although we wish we had not had to.

Roberta is one of our staffers in Production.  On Monday night, in her apartment parking lot she was robbed at gunpoint.  The story is here. She was thrown to the ground, badly bruised, and, of course,
traumatized.  We could help her with the physical bruising (She says "That's Better is another miracle blend.") but she didn't share the emotional toll until Wednesday afternoon.  Since the incident, she had been afraid to shut the light off at night.  She said she could not sleep, because whenever she closed her eyes, she saw the man's face.  When she did doze off, her sleep was ruined with nightmares.

And I remembered a blend we had decided not to present.

Some of you know we have been working on blends to present for a pilot Aromatherapy program at our local Alive Hospice.  Their second priority that they would like to address with Aromatherapy is Agitation/Anxiety.

Every blend must have published clinical research to support each ingredient, so I've been spending a lot of time combing various databases.  We had designed one blend that I knew would be effective. The research was there, the personal and anecdotal experience was there.  Jim and I blended it.  We didn't LIKE it.  We tweaked it. We added more of this.  We added more of that.  I was bound and determined to stay with the original four oils selected.  We tweaked some more. Finally we had decided to give it up, not to present it. We did NOT like it, and I can NOT be enthusiastic about an oil or blend that I dislike.

We put it aside and decided on an alternate for our Hospice pilot program, one that the Hospice staff is already familiar with and enjoyed.

What I didn't like in this blend is the aroma of Angelica Root. Even at only 1/30th of the entire blend (one ml out of 30) it overwhelmed the other anti-anxiety oils.  But I knew this was exactly what Roberta needed.  You see, Angelica is cited in some research studies as an effective anti-anxiety agent, but I have been taught that it works by "shutting down" the emotions; actually preventing you from "feeling your feelings."  Normally, this is not a healthy reaction, but sometimes it is exactly what is needed, at least for a short period.   At any rate,  I gave Roberta a bit of this blend to see if she liked it. She didn't LIKE it, but she said,yes, I could use this.   During the day, she frequently sniffed a drop on a tissue. (We have to make her an inhaler!)  She said "She felt like something was just draining out of her, being removed."

Wednesday night, when she got ready to go bed, she brought the blend with her, again, on a tissue. Several deep inhalations,  and tucked the tissue inside her pillow case.  For the first time since the robbery, she shut off her bedroom light, and closed her eyes. She says the next thing she remembers is her alarm going off, and she had no idea what that noise was.  (Now, after no sleep for two nights, we know that she was exhausted, but the blend calmed her terrors so her body could sleep.)

We don't plan on offering this blend in our product line. We really don't care much for it.  But if you, or someone dear to you, is suffering from severe emotional trauma, with the symptoms that Roberta described, the blend might help.

I am giving the measurements in "parts."  We blended by the ml, but thirty mls is one full ounce, a tremendous amount for one person.  I would recommend blending by the drop for personal use.

Emotional Trauma Blend.   © 2017 M. G. Clark

16 Petigrain 
8 Nerolina  
5 Sweet orange
1 Angelica Root.    

Do NOT omit the Angelica Root.  Yes.  It's expensive.  You may not like it. but it is the secret of this synergistic blend.

I hope you will never need this.   but if you do... here it is.

Post script, Friday morning:  When I was double checking with Roberta to make very sure she was comfortable with our sharing her story, she said, "I forgot to tell you. Monday night the policemen suggested I take some Ibuprofen for my knee, and I did. (Marge's note, it was swollen larger than a softball.) Since then I've not needed to take anything,  Trauma Oil and Kunzea, and That's Better have eased the pain and the swelling is gone."  More evidence of the physical, as well as emotional, effects of the oils.

And by today, Friday, she is no longer inhaling the blend during the day.  It's just a bit too relaxing when she needs to stay focused.  Time to switch her to our Reunité synergy.

Friday, March 17, 2017

Which is your most relaxing Lavender?

We are asked this frequently.  And the answer, of course, depends on the chemistry, of the specific components of each specific lavender specimen.

The most relaxing chemical components in most essential oils are the Esters... in the lavender family, specifically Linalyl Acetate and Lavandulyl Acetate.  (Hint for the non-chemists among us... yes, the esters names tend to end in ATE.)

The analysis of some of our current versions of various lavenders show the following:

Lavender Variety
Linalyl Acetate Content
Lavandulyl Acetate
Bulgarian 36.66 3.69
Grosso 23.77 2.42 26.19

There are other esters found in trace amounts in Lavender oils.  Review the posted GC's and look for components with ATE in their names. And remember that a different analyst may give different results, depending on the equipment used, so these totals are not locked in stone.

Now, in the past, we have seen case studies that indicate that Lavandin Super was a more effective relaxant in a clinical trial than an oil that was supposedly a true Lavandula angustifolia. The report of the study also pointed out that there was no gc/ms or Certificate of Analysis presented with the research project, and the genesis/provenance of the Lavender oil used was unknown.  It is possible.
 Based on the chart above, Lavandin super may well be more relaxing than our Wild High Altitude Lavender.   

But if I were seeking a lavender for relaxation out of our current inventory, I would reach for either our Mailette clone, or our Population (Lavender Fine.)   Which to use would depend on personal preference. As we so often say, "Get samples and see what you prefer."

After thought:  We have used Lavandin Super in our "go to sleep" blends for years with wonderful results.   I think any of the oils in the above chart would be relaxing with the exception of Lavandins Abrialis and Grosso.  

Choose your favorite, and have a wonderful night's sleep.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

A Lot About Linalool

A Lot About Linalool
Guest blog by Gail Storment
What is linalool? I have seen Linalool percentages listed in GC/MS reports, discussed under the headings of functional families, and listed as a constituent in an essential oil many times.  I wanted to know more so I started searching in my stack of essential oil books, online, asking questions, you name it…I wanted to learn about linalool!

Linalool is a monoterpenol alcohol, with the molecular formula C10H18O, and a molecular weight of 154. That sounds really geeky, sophisticated and scholarly! But where does Linalool come from? Linalool is found in the Lauraceae, Rutaceae and Apiaceae plant families:

·         Ho Wood (how about 98% linalool!)
·         Rosewood
·         Lavender
·         Coriander (Apiaceae family)
Linalool is also found in plants from the Rutaceae family:
·         Bergamot 
         Pink Grapefruit
·         Petitgrain

Linalool can be anti-bacterial, anti-infective, anti-spasmodic, sedative, and relaxing, plus can aid in pain reduction. Linalool also is important for the production of vitamin E in our bodies.
Recently I read about linalool being anti-inflammatory and that stunned me. I have never read anything about the anti-inflammatory properties of linalool so I decided to learn more about this particular therapeutic benefit, verify if the information was true or just wishful thinking, whatever-I just had to know the facts.

I read the cited studies so I will share what I gathered from them so we can learn about the possible anti-inflammatory benefits of essential oils that contain linalool. A particular study from China is the one what about knocked my socks off-cigarette smoke and linalool!
Once upon a time some lab mice needed something interesting to change their routine so some brainy scientists decided to dose up these mice with Linalool by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) two hours prior to exposing them to cigarette smoke. They continued this schedule for five consecutive days. The experiment was done to determine if Linalool would protect the mice’s lungs from acute inflammation from the cigarette smoke.  After giving the mice the linalool injections, they measured the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in “BALF” (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). What big words these studies use and how it messes with my story big time! So a simple conclusion- it was revealed that Linalool protected the mice against cigarette smoke induced lung inflammation. See the link below for the full content of the study.

Now I will add to my inflammation discovery another study that included linalyl acetate along with linalool. Many of the essential oils that contain linalool also contain linalyl acetate so the anti-inflammatory actions of both constitutes were tested individually.
Entering this story are creatures with long tails but this time rats were used in the experiment rather than little mice. The rats had a different ailment cast upon them-carrageenin-induced edema as the inflammation! After systematic doses of both constituents (individually tested), less edema was determined. The linalool administered rats showed a more prolonged effect of reduced edema while the linalyl acetate showed a reduction of edema for only one hour after the carrageenin was given. 

Check out this link for the full story of this experiment on linalool and linalyl acetate.

After years of using essential oils with high concentrations of linalool and linalyl acetate for the therapeutic benefits we learned about long ago, we now need to consider another reason to include them in a blend. Introducing an important therapeutic benefit-anti-inflammatory…take your bow! These studies show that linalool and linalyl acetate were important indications of anti-inflammatory activity in the lungs from essential oils that contained these constituents. Now we can consider making blends for lung inflammation using Lavender, Ho Wood and other essential oils that are high in linalool and linalyl acetate.

I have a new inhaler blend to use respiratory issues and it includes two *new oils for lung inflammation.
Respiratory Inhaler Blend for Congestion and Lung Inflammation
3 drops Ravintsara - anti-infectious, expectorant, decongestant, anti-bacterial, antimicrobial, anti-tussive, mucolytic
2 drops Eucalyptus Dives – mucolytic, expectorant, anti-tussive
2 drops Laurel Leaf - decongestant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, analgesic, sneezing and allergy symptoms.
*3 drops Lavender - Lavandula angustifolia (approximate percentages of linalyl acetate 42%, linalool 45%), analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, sedative
*3 drops Clary sage – (linalyl acetate approximately 65%) Anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, calming, sedative to help sleep while fighting respiratory issues
Submitted by Gail Storment, a self-studying student of aromatherapy

(Just a note to thank our friend Gail for sharing the results of her hard work with us all!)